Employee Category / Group

Human Resource Professionals group employees into different categories

(a) to tailor administration of the career/job cycle of each group differently, for example they keep an eye on the contract expiry dates of contract staff

(b) to design different compensation and benefits policies and schemes for each employee group, for example different vacation leave entitlements between full-time and part-time staff

(c) to analyze manpower data, for example determining the number of permanent staff against casual staff; analyzing increase in costs due to increase in manpower because of the peak business season

(d) to act as vocabulary for communication and to provide consistency in what is being communicated.

NORMAL / STANDARD HOURS OF WORK An employee’s “hours of work” is the period during which the employee is expected to carry out the duties assigned by his/her employer. It does not include any intervals allowed for rest, tea breaks and meals.

In Singapore, an employee covered by Part IV of the Employment Act is not required under his/her contract of service to work more than eight hours in a day or 44 hours in a week.

  • The limit of eight hours per day may be exceeded when an employee is not required to work more than five days a week. However, he/she is not required to work for more than nine hours per day or 44 hours in a week.
  • If the number of hours worked is less than 44 hours every alternate week, the limit of 44 hours a week may be exceeded in the other week. However, this must be stated in the contract of service and is subject to a maximum of 48 hours in one week or 88 hours in any continuous two week period.
FULL-TIME This refers to employees scheduled or rostered to work a standard work week or an equivalent number of hours a week.
PART-TIME This refers to employees scheduled or rostered to work for hours less than a standard work week or an equivalent number of hours a week.

 

In Singapore, a part-time employee is one who is required under his/her contract of service with an employer, to work for less than 35 hours a week.

 

There is a pattern of regularity to the work days and hours. Part-time employees may be further classified into quarter-time and half-time employees.

PART-YEAR This refers to employees who are on a part year working arrangements.

 

Part-Year working enables employees to work for set periods of less than 52 weeks per year to meet with service requirements and help employees for example to meet their caring and/or family commitments. The number of working days, hours etc and other arrangements are for initial agreement between the employee and their manager.

PERMANENT / REGULAR This refers to employees with a perpetual employment contract with the company.
TERM or CONTRACT This refers to employees with a fixed term or duration employment contract that has a date of expiry specified at the time of hire.
TEMPORARY This refers to employees with employment duration of less than 1 year’s duration, for example less than 6 months or from 3 months to less than 12 months. Compared with casual work, temporary employment is continuous, predictable and scheduled.

 

In Singapore, the Employment Act does not make any distinction between a temporary employee, contract employee, daily-rated employee or employee on tenured employment.

CASUAL This refers to employees employed on an on-call and as required basis without any commitment from either party to ongoing employment. This includes staff engaged for one-off situations.

 

Casual employment consists of discontinuous and irregularly scheduled work at unpredictable intervals. They do not have pre-determined hours of work, and work arrangements are made on an hourly, daily or weekly basis depending on the employer’s needs and availability of the worker.

FREELANCE This refers to an individual who is self-employed and works as an independent contractor to provide a specific service to a client.  This is also called a freelancer or freelance worker.
SEASONAL This refers to temporary or short-term employees or individuals who work during certain part of the year, for example during the peak business season.
SUBSITUTE This refers to an employee or individual who fills in for a permanent employee who is still on payroll and using paid leave.
INTERIM This refers to an employee or individual employed when a vacancy occurs by:

  • Separation from employment,
  • Leave without pay
  • Worker’s compensation
  • Short-term disability, or
  • Absence caused by an episode of violence
EXEMPT This refers to employees who are not entitled to overtime as guaranteed under the employment laws.
NON-EXEMPT This refers to employees who are entitled to overtime as guaranteed under the employment laws. They are normally required to account for hours and fractional hours worked.
FTE An employee’s FTE (full-time equivalent) represents the percentage of the employee’s work schedule compared to the hour/week schedule of a full-time person. For example, an full-time employee who works 40 hours per week is 100% FTE, while an part-time employee who works 20 hours per week is 50% FTE.

 

An FTE of 1.0 means that the person is equivalent to a full-time worker, while an FTE of 0.5 signals that the worker is only half-time.

 

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